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Full text of "The History Of Western Education"



So far we have been studying the progress of cosmopolitan
education under the direct influence of the Greeks. We conic
now to consider the eflects of the combination of (/reck educational
principles and methods with the national traditions of the Jews
and the Romans, the two peoples whose institutions and ideals
have in large measure determined the sttucture and spirit of
Christendom. Grseco-Jewish education, with which we begin, is
the less Important of the two composite systems that stand inter-
mediate between Greek and present-day education ; but in view
of the very considerable part which has been played by the Church
(a joint product of Jewish and Greek life) in all European educa-
tion—in view more particularly of the influence of the Old Testa-
ment on our Ideas about the upbringing of children-' it; deserves
some attention as a factor in the genesis of modern educational

The development of Jewish education before the Macedonian
age ran a course parallel In some respects to that of (Sreek educa-
tion. Here, again, the stimulus to a rise in culture came from the
JSgean civilization, but In this case the process of fusion of the
primitive and the advanced peoples was a slower one, and never
quite so complete. The Semitic tribes which invaded Canaan
under the leadership of Moses and Joshua (like the Aryan con-
querors, of Greece) were quite illiterate, and they remained
illiterate for some centuries after the settlement till they were
brought into contact with the Philistine hosts from the /Kgean
area, which threatened to oust them from the land. But though
the outcome of their struggle with the Philistines was a marked
advance in culture, they succeeded in conserving their racial
Identity more effectively than the Hellenic tribes had done under
similar conditions. In. face of the continued onsets of the
Philistines, the separate tribes were forced into a national unity,
sometime about 1000 B.C., that found expression on the political
side in a warrior-king (David) with a strong fortress capital
(Jerusalem); and on the religious side in the temple established
in the capital by Solomon for the worship of the tribal god,
The danger from the Philistines passed, but a more serious